The bed bath with or without water? It’s a wash! Experiences with the washing without water invention used for the bed bath

Fabian Marcel Victor Groven

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisExternal prepared

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This thesis studied experiences with the bed bath and the washing without water intervention that is increasingly used in health care. Bedridden care recipients are often washed in bed. Based on experiences of care recipients, nurses, informal caregivers, and nursing students, the thesis concludes that the bed bath is an important health care activity in relation to the well-being of patients and nurses. Traditionally, the bed bath is performed with water and soap. The washing without water intervention consists of packages with disposable washcloth containing a no-rinse cleansing fluid that can be used to bathe patients in bed without the use of water. The results show that the washing without water intervention is a suitable alternative for the traditional bed bath, as washing without water performed at least equally well on all studied outcomes, including comfort experiences. In addition, the washing without water intervention was found to be shorter, which is especially valuable when health care faces time constraints.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Maastricht University
  • Zwakhalen, Sandra, Supervisor
  • Odekerken - Schröder, Gaby, Supervisor
  • Hamers, Jan, Supervisor
Award date7 Dec 2021
Place of PublicationMaastricht
Print ISBNs9789464193572
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Bed bath
  • washing without water
  • essential nursing care
  • experiences

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