Background: A low vitamin D and K status has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but the evidence of their combined effect on cardiovascular health is limited.
Objectives: Our study aimed to investigate the prospective association of vitamin D and K status with subclinical measures of cardiovascular health and all-cause mortality among a population of Dutch Caucasians.
Methods: We performed an observational prospective study on 601 participants of the Hoorn Study (mean +/- SD age: 70 +/- 6 y, 50.4% women, BMI: 27.2 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)), of whom 321 underwent an echocardiogram in 2000-2001 and 2007-2009. Vitamin D and K status was assessed at baseline by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix-gla protein (dp-ucMGP)-high concentrations indicate low vitamin K status. Vital status was assessed from baseline until 2018. We studied the association of categories of 25(OH)D (stratified by the clinical cutoff of 50 mmol/L) and dp-ucMGP (stratified by the median value of 568 pmol/L) with echocardiographic measures using linear regression and with all-cause mortality using Cox regression, adjusted for confounders.
Results: Compared with markers of normal vitamin D and K status, markers of low vitamin D and K status were prospectively associated with increased left ventricular mass index (5.9 g/m(2.7); 95% CI: 1.8, 10.0 g/m(2.7)). Participants with low vitamin D and K status were also at increased risk of all-cause mortality with an HR of 1.64 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.39) compared with normal vitamin D and K status.
Conclusions: A combination of low vitamin D and K status is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and increased risk of all-cause mortality in men and women. Future studies should investigate whether vitamin D and K supplementation could help to improve cardiovascular health and to decrease CVD risk.
- vitamin K
- vitamin D
- cardiac structure
- MATRIX GLA PROTEIN
- POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
- JOINT ASSOCIATION