This study examined the relationship between the physical environment characteristics of primary schools and active school transport among 3,438 5- to 12-year-old primary school children in the Netherlands. The environmental characteristics were categorized into four theory-based clusters (function, safety, aesthetics, and destination). The correlations between the clusters and active school transport were examined, and multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between the clusters and active school transport. No correlations were found between environmental clusters and active school transport for younger children (age 5-9), but for older children (age 9-12), strong positive correlations were found between aesthetics and active transport as were found for safety and active transport. School neighborhood aesthetics were related to active transport for older primary school children. Presence of parks, good maintenance of green spaces, and absence of litter in the school environment contributed most to the positive association between aesthetics and active school transport.