The anabolic role of the Warburg, Cori-cycle and Crabtree effects in health and disease

P.B. Soeters*, A. Shenkin, L. Sobotka, M.R. Soeters*, P.W. de Leeuw, R.R. Wolfe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In evolution, genes survived that could code for metabolic pathways, promoting long term survival during famines or fasting when suffering from trauma, disease or during physiological growth. This requires utilization of substrates, already present in some form in the body. Carbohydrate stores are limited and to survive long, their utilization is restricted to survival pathways, by inhibiting glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. This leads to insulin resistance and spares muscle protein, because being the main supplier of carbon for new glucose production.In these survival pathways, part of the glucose is degraded in glycolysis in peripheral (muscle) tissues to pyruvate and lactate (Warburg effect), which are partly reutilized for glucose formation in liver and kidney, completing the Cori-cycle. Another part of the glucose taken up by muscle contributes, together with muscle derived amino acids, to the production of substrates consisting of a complete amino acid mix but extra non-essential amino acids like glutamine, alanine, glycine and proline. These support cell proliferation, matrix deposition and redox regulation in tissues, specifically active in host response and during growth. In these tissues, also glucose is taken up delivering glycolytic intermediates, that branch off and act as building blocks and produce reducing equivalents. Lactate is also produced and released in the circu-lation, adding to the lactate released by muscle in the Cori-cycle and completing secondary glucose cycles. Increased fluxes through these cycles lead to modest hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia in states of healthy growth and disease and are often misinterpreted as induced by hypoxia.(c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2988-2998
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Nutrition
Volume40
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021

Keywords

  • Warburg effect
  • Cori-cycle
  • Inflammation
  • Insulin resistance
  • Growth
  • Trauma
  • Disease
  • NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS
  • FATTY-ACID OXIDATION
  • INTENSIVE INSULIN THERAPY
  • LATE PARENTERAL-NUTRITION
  • GLUCOSE-METABOLISM
  • AMINO-ACIDS
  • LIPID-METABOLISM
  • LACTIC-ACID
  • CELL-GROWTH
  • BURN INJURY

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