Over the past two decades there has been a substantial increase in the mobility of students in Europe, while also research has become much more internationally oriented. In this paper we document changes in the structure of research and higher education in Europe and investigate potential explanations for the strong increase in
its international orientation. While higher education started to grow substantially around 1960, only a few decades later, research and higher education transformed gradually to the American standard. Decreased communication costs are likely causes for this trend. This transformation is most clearly revealed in the change of language
used in research from the national language, Latin, German and French to English. Smaller language areas made this transformation earlier while there are also clear timing differences between research fields. Sciences and medicine tend to switch to English first, followed by economics and social sciences, while for law and arts only the first signs of such a transformation are currently observed. Th is suggests that returns to scale and the transferability of research results are important influences in the decision to adopt the international standard.
|Series||METEOR Research Memorandum|
- i21 - Analysis of Education
- i23 - Higher Education and Research Institutions
- a22 - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: Undergraduate
- a23 - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: Graduate
- o15 - "Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration"
- higher education and research
- educational expansion
- economic development