The aftermath of transnational illegal adoptions: Redressing human rights violations in the intercountry adoption system with instruments of transitional justice

Elvira Loibl*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


A growing movement of illegally adopted individuals request remedies and reparations for the human rights violations that they and their biological families had suffered. This article explores a number of measures that the stakeholders in the receiving countries can use in an effort to repair the human rights violations caused by illegal intercountry adoptions, borrowing ideas from transitional justice. In order to effectively redress the harm inflicted upon victims of illegal adoptions, a policy on remedies should combine instruments of retributive justice, aimed at holding wrongdoers accountable, with measures of restorative justice that focus on the victims’ needs and interests.
Original languageEnglish
Article number09075682211064430
Pages (from-to)477-491
Number of pages15
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Illegal intercountry adoptions
  • receiving countries
  • transitional justice
  • human rights violations
  • remedies and reparations

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