This study investigates the uptake of energy efficiency (EE) measures in two important agro-industrial sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa, the cassava- and maize-processing industries in Nigeria and Kenya. These two countries represent regions with a weak environmental policy regime and rather weak innovation systems. An empirical investigation of problems associated with the adoption of energy efficiency measures and the responses of African actors and foreign suppliers to such problems is presented. The overall conclusions are that such measures are mainly undertaken for economic reasons of cost-efficiency, that few firms in the agro-industries studied have adopted sophisticated measures of energy saving, that many encountered problems, that there is a great reliance on foreign suppliers of EE technologies in the case of maize millers but less so in the case of cassava processing, that informal mechanisms of learning are an important source of learning, and that universities and public research institutes come out as relatively unimportant sources of knowledge. In the cassava sector, complex technological equipment is commonly supplied as part of package involving training and financial advice, with an important role being played by consultants and external advisors.