The acute effects on duodenal gene expression in healthy men following consumption of a low-fat meal enriched with theobromine or fat

Lotte Smolders, Ronald P. Mensink, Mark V. Boekschoten, Rogier J. J. de Ridder, Jogchum Plat*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Web of Science)


Increasing apoA-I synthesis may improve HDL functionality and lower CVD risk. As theobromine and fat increase fasting apoA-I concentrations, and the intestine is involved in apoA-I production, the acute effects of both were studied on duodenal gene transcription to better understand underlying mechanisms. In this crossover study, 8 healthy men received once a low fat (LF) meal, a LF meal plus theobromine (850 mg), or a high fat (HF) meal. Five hours after meal intake duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. Theobromine and HF consumption did not change duodenal apoA-I expression. Theobromine did not change gene expression related to lipid and cholesterol metabolism, whereas those related to glycogen/glucose breakdown were downregulated. HF consumption increased gene expression related to lipid and cholesterol uptake and transport, and to glucose storage, while it decreased those related to glucose uptake. Furthermore, genes related to inflammation were upregulated, but inflammation markers in plasma were not changed. In healthy men, acute theobromine and fat consumption did not change duodenal apoA-I mRNA, but inhibited expression of genes related to glucose metabolism. Furthermore, HF intake activated in the duodenum expression of genes related to lipid and cholesterol metabolism and to inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1700
Number of pages11
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jan 2018


  • I-FABP
  • DIET
  • MUFA
  • Duodenum/physiology
  • Fats/administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Theobromine/administration & dosage
  • Young Adult
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Adult
  • Meals
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics
  • Diet/methods
  • Biopsy
  • Immunologic Factors/genetics

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