The 6p25 deletion syndrome: An update on a rare neurocristopathy

Ivo J. H. M. de Vos, Alexander P. A. Stegmann, Carroll A. B. Webers, Constance T. R. M. Stumpel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review


Anterior segment dysgeneses are developmental anomalies of the anterior eye segment that can occur as isolated defects or as part of various syndromes. A subgroup is caused by abnormal embryonic neural crest development. The Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is an umbrella term for a continuum of anterior segment dysgeneses of neural crest origin, characterized by the presence of the Axenfeld or Rieger eye malformation predisposing for glaucoma. Additionally, other structures of neural crest origin can be variably affected giving rise to a wide spectrum of associated extra-ocular malformations. Key clinical features comprise facial dysmorphism including mid-face and dental hypoplasia, hearing loss, cardiac anomalies, and involuted periumbilical skin. The Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is genetically heterogeneous and about 16% of cases are caused by heterozygous mutations in FOXC1 at 6p25.3, a transcription factor gene regulating neural crest cell development. There is considerable clinical overlap between the Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome and the 6p25 deletion syndrome, a microdeletion syndrome characterized by heterozygous loss of FOXC1. In both syndromes, FOXC1 haploinsufficiency seems to be pathogenic. Here, we review the clinical features and pathogenesis of the 6p25 deletion syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-107
Number of pages7
JournalOphthalmic Genetics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • 6p25 deletion
  • Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome
  • neurocristopathy
  • FOXC1
  • PITX2
  • FOXF2
  • GENE

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