The 12-Item Hypoglycemia Impact Profile (HIP12): psychometric validation of a brief measure of the impact of hypoglycemia on quality of life among adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes

Melanie Broadley*, Hannah Chatwin, Uffe Søholm, Stephanie A Amiel, Jill Carlton, Bastiaan E De Galan, Christel Hendrieckx, Rory J McCrimmon, Søren E Skovlund, Frans Pouwer, Jane Speight, Hypo-RESOLVE Consortium

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the 12-Item Hypoglycemia Impact Profile (HIP12), a brief measure of the impact of hypoglycemia on quality of life (QoL) among adults with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with T1D (n=1071) or T2D (n=194) participating in the multicountry, online study, 'Your SAY: Hypoglycemia', completed the HIP12. Psychometric analyses were undertaken to determine acceptability, structural validity, internal consistency, convergent/divergent validity, and known-groups validity.

RESULTS: Most (98%) participants completed all items on the HIP12. The expected one-factor solution was supported for T1D, T2D, native English speaker, and non-native English speaker groups. Internal consistency was high across all groups (ω=0.91-0.93). Convergent and divergent validity were satisfactory. Known-groups validity was demonstrated for both diabetes types, by frequency of severe hypoglycemia (0 vs ≥1 episode in the past 12 months) and self-treated episodes (<2 vs 2-4 vs ≥5 per week). The measure also discriminated by awareness of hypoglycemia in those with T1D.

CONCLUSIONS: The HIP12 is an acceptable, internally consistent, and valid tool for assessing the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL among adults with T1D. The findings in the relatively small sample with T2D are encouraging and warrant replication in a larger sample.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere002890
Number of pages13
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality of Life

Cite this