Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

Brigitta G. Baumert*, Monika E. Hegi, Martin J. van den Bent, Andreas von Deimling, Thierry Gorlia, Khe Hoang-Xuan, Alba A. Brandes, Guy Kantor, Martin J. B. Taphoorn, Mohamed Ben Hassel, Christian Hartmann, Gail Ryan, David Capper, Johan M. Kros, Sebastian Kurscheid, Wolfgang Wick, Roelien Enting, Michele Reni, Brian Thiessen, Frederic DhermainJacoline E. Bromberg, Loic Feuvret, Jaap C. Reijneveld, Olivier Chinot, Johanna M. M. Gijtenbeek, John P. Rossiter, Nicolas Dif, Carmen Balana, Jose Bravo-Marques, Paul M. Clement, Christine Marosi, Tzahala Tzuk-Shina, Robert A. Nordal, Jeremy Rees, Denis Lacombe, Warren P. Mason, Roger Stupp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and assessed progression-free survival outcomes and identified predictive molecular factors. Methods For this randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study (EORTC 22033-26033), undertaken in 78 clinical centres in 19 countries, we included patients aged 18 years or older who had a low-grade (WHO grade II) glioma (astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, or oligodendroglioma) with at least one high-risk feature (aged >40 years, progressive disease, tumour size >5 cm, tumour crossing the midline, or neurological symptoms), and without known HIV infection, chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection, or any condition that could interfere with oral drug administration. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1: 1) to receive either conformal radiotherapy (up to 50.4 Gy; 28 doses of 1.8 Gy once daily, 5 days per week for up to 6.5 weeks) or dose-dense oral temozolomide (75 mg/m(2) once daily for 21 days, repeated every 28 days [one cycle], for a maximum of 12 cycles). Random treatment allocation was done online by a minimisation technique with prospective stratification by institution, 1p deletion (absent vs present vs undetermined), contrast enhancement (yes vs no), age (= 40 years), and WHO performance status (0 vs >= 1). Patients, treating physicians, and researchers were aware of the assigned intervention. A planned analysis was done after 216 progression events occurred. Our primary clinical endpoint was progression-free survival, analysed by intention-to-treat; secondary outcomes were overall survival, adverse events, neurocognitive function (will be reported separately), health-related quality of life and neurological function (reported separately), and correlative analyses of progression-free survival by molecular markers (1p/19q co-deletion, MGMT promoter methylation status, and IDH1/IDH2 mutations). This trial is closed to accrual but continuing for follow-up, and is registered at the European Trials Registry, EudraCT 2004-002714-11, and at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00182819. Findings Between Sept 23, 2005, and March 26, 2010, 707 patients were registered for the study. Between Dec 6, 2005, and Dec 21, 2012, we randomly assigned 477 patients to receive either radiotherapy (n=240) or temozolomide chemotherapy (n=237). At a median follow-up of 48 months (IQR 31-56), median progression-free survival was 39 months (95% CI 35-44) in the temozolomide group and 46 months (40-56) in the radiotherapy group (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% CI 0.9-1.5, p=0.22). Median overall survival has not been reached. Exploratory analyses in 318 molecularly-defined patients confirmed the significantly different prognosis for progression-free survival in the three recently defined molecular low-grade glioma subgroups (IDHmt, with or without 1p/19q co-deletion [IDHmt/codel], or IDH wild type [IDHwt]; p=0.013). Patients with IDHmt/non-codel tumours treated with radiotherapy had a longer progression-free survival than those treated with temozolomide (HR 1.86 [95% CI 1.21-2.87], log-rank p=0.0043), whereas there were no significant treatment-dependent differences in progression-free survival for patients with IDHmt/codel and IDHwt tumours. Grade 3-4 haematological adverse events occurred in 32 (14%) of 236 patients treated with temozolomide and in one (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1521-1532
JournalLancet oncology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016

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