PurposeThe objective of this technical note was to investigate the accuracy of proton stopping power relative to water (RSP) estimation using a novel dual-layer, dual-energy computed tomography (DL-DECT) scanner for potential use in proton therapy planning. DL-DECT allows dual-energy reconstruction from scans acquired at a single x-ray tube voltage V by using two-layered detectors.
MethodsSets of calibration and evaluation inserts were scanned at a DL-DECT scanner in a custom phantom with variable diameter D (0 to 150mm) at V of 120 and 140kV. Inserts were additionally scanned at a synchrotron computed tomography facility to obtain comparative linear attenuation coefficients for energies from 50 to 100keV, and reference RSP was obtained using a carbon ion beam and variable water column. DL-DECT monoenergetic (mono-E) reconstructions were employed to obtain RSP by adapting the Yang-Saito-Landry (YSL) method. The method was compared to reference RSP via the root mean square error (RMSE) over insert mean values obtained from volumetric regions of interest. The accuracy of intermediate quantities such as the relative electron density (RED), effective atomic number (EAN), and the mono-E was additionally evaluated.
ResultsThe lung inserts showed higher errors for all quantities and we report RMSE excluding them. RMSE for from DL-DECT mono-E was below 1.9%. For the evaluation inserts at D=150mm and V=140kV, RED RMSE was 1.0%, while for EAN it was 2.9%. RSP RMSE was below 0.8% for all D and V, which did not strongly affect the results.
ConclusionsIn this investigation of RSP accuracy from DL-DECT, we have shown that RMSE below 1% can be achieved. It was possible to adapt the YSL method for DL-DECT and intermediate quantities RED and EAN had comparable accuracy to previous publications.
- dual-energy CT
- dual-layer CT
- monoenergetic imaging
- proton therapy
- relative stopping power
- synchrotron CT
- ENERGY CT