Tardive dyskinesia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, It is not clear whether this dysfunction occurs in the form of a global or specific cognitive deficit. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a well-defined catchment area (Curacao, The Netherlands Antilles). All schizophrenic inpatients who had been taking neuroleptic medication for at least 3 months and who were younger than 65 years were included (n = 53). Tardive dyskinesia was assessed with the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. The neuropsychological assessment comprised tests of memory, executive function, and speed of information processing. Of the six cognitive measures, only delayed recall was significantly associated with orofacial dyskinesia. Limb-truncal dyskinesia was not associated with any of the cognitive measures. The pattern of memory impairment is consistent with there being a frontal-subcortical disturbance in orofacial dyskinesia. The results underscore the importance of using specific cognitive test procedures in the search for the cognitive correlates of dyskinesia.