Systemic inflammation is a recognized hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis. Although the origin and mechanisms responsible for the persistent chronic inflammatory process remain to be elucidated, it is recognized that it plays an important role in skeletal muscle pathology as observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and several other chronic inflammatory disorders. This article describes state-of-the-art knowledge and novel insights in the role of inflammatory processes on several aspects of inflammation-related skeletal muscle pathology and offers new insights in therapeutic perspectives. AD - Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.