Aims Recent clinical studies showed that antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) treatment and pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) synergistically reduce atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrences after initially successful ablation. Among newly developed atrial-selective AADs, inhibitors of the G-protein-gated acetylcholine-activated inward rectifier current (I-KAch) were shown to effectively suppress AF in an experimental model but have not yet been evaluated clinically. We tested in silico whether inhibition of inward rectifier current or its combination with PVI reduces AF inducibility.Methods and results We simulated the effect of inward rectifier current blockade (I-K blockade), PVI, and their combination on AF inducibility in a detailed three-dimensional model of the human atria with different degrees of fibrosis. I-K blockade was simulated with a 30% reduction of its conductivity. Atrial fibrillation was initiated using incremental pacing applied at 20 different locations, in both atria. I-K blockade effectively prevented AF induction in simulations without fibrosis as did PVI in simulations without fibrosis and with moderate fibrosis. Both interventions lost their efficacy in severe fibrosis. The combination of I-K blockade and PVI prevented AF in simulations without fibrosis, with moderate fibrosis, and even with severe fibrosis. The combined therapy strongly decreased the number of fibrillation waves, due to a synergistic reduction of wavefront generation rate white the wavefront lifespan remained unchanged.Conclusion Newly developed blockers of atrial-specific inward rectifier currents, such as I-KAch, might prevent AF occurrences and when combined with PA effectively supress AF recurrences in human.
- Antiarrhythmic drug
- Inward rectifier currents
- Catheter ablation
- Atrial fibrillation recurrence
- In silico study