Synchronous vs. Metachronous Metastases in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: an Analysis of the Dutch Adrenal Network

M.H.T. Ettaieb*, J. C. Duker, R. A. Feelders, E. P. M. Corssmit, C. W. Menke-van der Houven van Oordt, H. J. L. M. Timmers, M. N. Kerstens, J.W. Wilmink, P. M. Zelissen, B. Havekes, H. R. Haak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with an incidence of 1.0 per million per year in the Netherlands. Median survival varies according to the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) tumour stage. It is unknown whether time until development of metastases is of influence on prognosis. To asses this, data were retrospectively obtained from centres of the Dutch Adrenal Network. Patients who presented with ACC between January 1, 2004 and October 31, 2013 were included. Date of detection of metastases, number of metastases and affected organs were registered. One hundred sixty patients were included in the analysis. Synchronous metastases were defined as diagnosis of metastasis aecurrency sign6 months after the initial diagnosis of ACC. Overall survival rate was calculated from the date of diagnosis of metastasis until death from any cause. At first presentation, 50 patients (31 %) had ACC with metastases (ENS@T stage IV). Another 67 (42 %) developed metastases during follow-up. Amongst the 117 patients with metastases, 84 (72 %) patients had synchronous metastases and 33 (28 %) developed metachronous metastases. Diagnosis of synchronous metastases (p = 0.046), more than one affected organ (p <0.001) and four or more metastases (p <0.001) were found to be associated with reduced overall survival. Limitations included retrospective design and limited details regarding pathological data. We conclude that synchronous metastases of ACC are associated with a poorer prognosis compared to metachronous metastases of ACC. The clinical characteristics associated with prognosis in this study support the view to refine the prognostic classification for patients with stage IV ACC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-344
JournalHormones and Cancer
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016


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