We discuss why surprises, defined as events that happen unexpectedly or expected events that take unexpected shapes, are important to organizations and should be considered in the organization and management literature as an umbrella concept, encompassing a variety of related phenomena. The concept of organizational surprises is unpacked and a typology is built around the (un)expectedness of the issue and the (un)expectedness of the process. This typology uncovers the several types of surprising events that organizations may face, and contributes to the literature by identifying how different types of surprises require distinct managerial approaches.
Pina e Cunha, M., Clegg, S. R., & Kamoche, K. (2006). Surprises in Management and organization: Concept, Sources and A Typology. British Journal of Management, 17, 317-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00470.x