Background: Ischemic stroke after coronary artery bypass (CABG) has been often linked to aortic manipulation during surgery.
Objectives: The objective of the study was to estimate the rate of postoperative ischemic stroke within 30 days from CABG by surgical risk factors alone or in combination.
Methods: The multinomial propensity score for multiple treatments was used to create six models with a total of 16,255 consecutive patients undergoing isolated CABG. For each model, a different classification variable was used to stratify patients.
Results: Balance achieved in all models was substantial, enabling unbiased estimation of the treatment estimand. Both off-pump techniques with (0.009; 95% CI 0.006-0.011) or without proximal anastomoses (0.005; 0.005-0.003), and surgery performed on the beating heart using cardiopulmonary bypass with (0.009; 0.006-0.011) or without proximal anastomoses (0.024; 0.021-0.029) showed a mean stroke estimate significantly lower than the other techniques. Off-pump surgery and on-pump surgery without an aortic cross-clamp yielded nearly equal incidences of stroke (0.012; 0.008-0.015 and 0.018; 0.012-0.023, respectively). Using an aortic cross-clamp significantly increased the stroke estimate (0.075; 0.061-0.088), whereas using a side-biting clamp did not (0.039; 0.033-0.044). The number of aortic touches (0.029; 0.026-0.031) and the number of proximal anastomoses (0.044; 0.035-0.047) did not significantly increase the incidence of stroke.
Conclusions: Aortic cross-clamping was found to be the primary cause of post-CABG ischemic stroke. Instead, additional aortic manipulation from a side-biting clamp, on-pump surgery, multiple aortic touches, number of proximal anastomoses, and aortic cannulation were found not to increase the estimate of stroke significantly. Further research on this topic is warranted.
- coronary artery bypass-adverse effects
- surgical technique
- aortic manipulation
- aortic cannulation
- off-pump artery bypass and grafting
- proximal aortic anastomosis
- PUMP BEATING-HEART
- NO-TOUCH TECHNIQUE
- CLAMP TECHNIQUE
- TERM OUTCOMES