Substrate utilization and metabolic profile in response to overfeeding with a high-fat diet in South Asian and white men: a sedentary lifestyle study

Siti N. Wulan*, Vera B. Schrauwen-Hinderling, Klaas R. Westerterp, Guy Plasqui

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18-29 kg/m(2)) and 10 white men (BMI, 22-33 kg/m(2)), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20-40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 x 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content (P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance (P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response (P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-146
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume44
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

Keywords

  • MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-SPECTROSCOPY
  • TERM HIGH-FAT
  • ENERGY-EXPENDITURE
  • INSULIN SENSITIVITY
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
  • SKELETAL-MUSCLE
  • BODY-COMPOSITION
  • CARBOHYDRATE
  • OXIDATION
  • OBESITY

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