in the present study the effects of sub-chronic rolipram treatment in an object recognition task in 3-month-old male rats were investigated. Rats remember which object they have explored in a previous trial (T1) when they are tested 1 h later (T2). However, when tested 24 h later, they do not remember which object was presented to them in the first trial. Drug treatments may improve discrimination performance after 24 h, i.e., improve memory for the familiar object. Rats were sub-chronically treated with 0.5 mg/kg rolipram (p.o.) for five consecutive days and tested with a 24 h delay between T1 and T2. Memory performance in the object recognition task was assessed before, during and after sub-chronic treatment. In addition, we investigated whether the timing of the final dose, i.e., 24, 1, or 6 h before training, had an effect on memory performance. During sub-chronic treatment, i.e., after 2-3 days of rolipram treatment, moderate effects on memory performance were observed. Regardless of when the final administration was given, sub-chronic rolipram treatment improved long-term memory performance. Since plasma and brain rolipram levels were undetectable at 24 h before the test, and acute treatment with rolipram 24 h before training had no effects, the observed memory enhancement cannot be attributed to acute rolipram effects. The long-term memory enhancing effects of rolipram might be explained by long-lasting neuronal changes by the chronic treatment due to recurring activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway leading to CREB phosphorylation.