Stress is a critical player in the regulation of the major cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) that metabolize the majority of the prescribed drugs. Early in life, maternal deprivation (MD) stress and repeated restraint stress (RS) modified CYP expression in a stress-specific manner. In particular, the expression of CYP3A1 and CYP2C11 was increased in the liver of MD rats, whereas RS had no significant effect. In contrast, hepatic CYP2D1/2 activity was increased by RS, whereas MD did not affect it. The primary effectors of the stress system, glucocorticoids and epinephrine, highly induced CYP3A1/2. Epinephrine also induced the expression of CYP2C11 and CYP2D1/2. Further investigation indicated that AR-agonists may modify CYP regulation. In vitro experiments using primary hepatocyte cultures treated with the AR-agonists phenylephrine, dexmedetomidine, and isoprenaline indicated an AR-induced upregulating effect on the above-mentioned CYPs mediated by the cAMP/protein kinase A and c-Jun NH?-terminal kinase signaling pathways. Interestingly though, in vivo pharmacological manipulations of ARs using the same AR-agonists led to a suppressed hepatic CYP expression profile, indicating that the effect of the complex network of central and peripheral AR-linked pathways overrides that of the hepatic ARs. The AR-mediated alterations in CYP3A1/2, CYP2C11, and CYP2D1/2 expressions are potentially connected with those observed in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b. In conclusion, stress and AR-agonists may modify the expression of the major CYP genes involved in the metabolism of drugs used in a wide range of diseases, thus affecting drug efficacy and toxicity.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology : Endocrinology and Metabolism|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2012|
- cytochrome P-450s
- drug metabolism