Strategies and challenges for non-viral delivery of non-coding RNAs to the heart

Andreia Vilaça, Leon J de Windt, Hugo Fernandes, Lino Ferreira*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review


Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cardiovascular pathophysiology. Their transient effect and diversified mechanisms of action offer a plethora of therapeutic opportunities for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, physicochemical RNA features such as charge, stability, and structural organization hinder efficient on-target cellular delivery. Here, we highlight recent preclinical advances in ncRNA delivery for the cardiovascular system using non-viral approaches. We identify the unmet needs and advance possible solutions towards clinical translation. Finding the optimal delivery vehicle and administration route is vital to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety; however, given the different types of ncRNAs, this may ultimately not be frameable within a one-size-fits-all approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-91
Number of pages22
JournalTrends in Molecular Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date9 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


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