Steep repolarization time gradients in pig hearts cause distinct changes in composite electrocardiographic T-wave parameters

Jeanne van der Waal*, Laura Bear, Veronique Meijborg, Rémi Dubois, Matthijs Cluitmans, Ruben Coronel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: The T wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) reflects ventricular repolarization. Repolarization heterogeneity is associated with reentrant arrhythmias. Several T-wave markers (including QT interval) have been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but studies linking such markers to underlying local repolarization time (RT) inhomogeneities are lacking. We aimed to investigate the relation of several T-wave markers to controlled drug-induced regional RT gradients in intact pig hearts.

METHODS: Repolarization time gradients were created by regional infusion of dofetilide and pinacidil in four atrially paced porcine Langendorff-perfused hearts placed inside a torso tank. From the 12-lead ECG on the torso tank, the mean, maximum, and dispersion (max-min) of QT time , JT time , T peak-end , T width , TQ ratio , dV/dt max , T area , T amp , and T-upslope duration were determined, as well as upslope end difference between leads V 1 and V 6 .

RESULTS: Temporal T-wave parameters T peak-end , T width, and TQ ratio show a significant and high correlation with RT gradient, best reflected by mean value. T area (mean, max and dispersion) and dV/dt max dispersion show only a moderate significant correlation. T-upslope duration shows a significant correlation in particular for mean values. Mean, maximum, or dispersion of QT time and V 1 -V 6 upslope end difference were not significantly correlated with RT gradient.

CONCLUSION: Composite 12-lead ECG T-wave parameters T peak-end , T width , TQ ratio , upslope duration, and T area show a good correlation with underlying RT heterogeneity, whereas standard clinical metrics such as QT time do not reflect local RT heterogeneity. The composite T-wave metrics may thus provide better insights in arrhythmia susceptibility than traditional QT time metrics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12994
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Issue number6
Early online date19 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • 12-lead ECG
  • ECG
  • PEAK
  • RISK
  • Tpe
  • Tpeak-end
  • cardiac repolarization
  • electrophysiology
  • repolarization heterogeneity
  • torso tank


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