Food deprivation results in metabolic, structural, and functional changes in the small intestine that influences gut mucosal integrity, epithelial cell proliferation, mucin synthesis, and other processes. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, which lead to the study of molecular effects of short-term and long-term starvation in the intestine of mice. A comparative proteomics approach, combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was used to identify intestinal proteins whose expression is changed under different starvation conditions (0, 12, 24, and 72 h). In total, the expression levels of 80 protein spots changed significantly between the different groups. The results demonstrate that after 12 h of starvation, mainly proteins involved in glycolysis and energy metabolism show decreased expression levels. Starvation for 24 h results in a down-regulation of proteins involved in protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism. Simultaneously, proteins with a protective role, e.g., reg I and II, glutathione peroxidase 3, and carbonic anhydrase 3, are clearly up-regulated. The last starvation phase (72 h) is characterized by increased ezrin expression, which may enhance villus morphogenesis critical for survival. Together, these results provide novel insights in the intestinal starvation response and may contribute to improved nutritional support during conditions characterized by malnutrition.