Staggered Meal Consumption Facilitates Appetite Control without Affecting Postprandial Energy Intake

S.G. Lemmens, E.A.P. Martens, J.M. Born, M. Martens, M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga

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Abstract

Meal pattern may influence hormone and appetite dynamics and food intake. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of staggered compared with nonstaggered meal consumption on hormone and appetite dynamics, food reward (i.e. "liking," "wanting"), and subsequent energy intake. The study was conducted in a randomized cross-over design. Participants (n = 38, age = 24 +/- 6 y, BMI = 25.0 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) came to the university twice for consumption of a 4-course lunch (40% of the daily energy requirements) in 0.5 h (nonstaggered) or in 2 h with 3 within-meal pauses (staggered) followed by ad libitum food intake. Throughout the test sessions, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY(3-36)), ghrelin, appetite, and food reward were measured. In the staggered compared with nonstaggered meal condition, peak values of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), and satiety were lower and time to peak values were higher (P < 0.02); the nadir value of hunger was higher, and time to nadir values of ghrelin and hunger were higher (P < 0.0001). Prior to ad libitum food intake, GLP-1 concentrations and satiety ratings were greater, ghrelin concentrations and hunger ratings were smaller, and food "wanting" was less in the staggered compared with nonstaggered meal condition (P < 0.05). However, this did not affect ad libitum energy intake (1.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.2 MJ). In conclusion, staggered compared with nonstaggered meal consumption induces less pronounced hormone and appetite dynamics. Moreover, it results in higher final GLP-1 concentrations and satiety ratings, lower ghrelin concentrations and hunger ratings, and lower food "wanting" prior to ad libitum food intake. However, this was not translated into lower energy intake.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)482-488
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume141
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011

Keywords

  • GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1
  • FOOD-INTAKE
  • METABOLIC ADVANTAGES
  • INCREASED FREQUENCY
  • HUMANS
  • OVERCONSUMPTION
  • HORMONES
  • INSULIN
  • BALANCE
  • SATIETY

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