beta(3)-Adrenoceptors are a promising drug target for the treatment of urinary bladder dysfunction, but knowledge about their expression at the protein level and their functional role is limited, partly due to a lack of well validated tools. As many antibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors, including those against beta(3)- and other beta-adrenoceptor subtypes, lack selectivity for their target, we have evaluated the specificity of five antibodies raised against the full-length protein of the human beta(3)-adrenoceptor (H155-B01), its N-terminus (LSA4198 and TA303277) and its C-terminus (AB5122, Sc1472) in immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Our primary test system were Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected to express each of the three human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes at near physiological levels (100-200 fmol/mg protein). None of the five antibodies exhibited convincing target specificity in immunoblotting with Sc1472 apparently being least unsuitable. In immunocytochemistry, LSA4198 and Sc1472 appeared most promising, exhibiting at least some degree of specificity. As these two antibodies have been raised against different epitopes (N- and C-terminus of the receptor, respectively), we propose that concordant staining by both antibodies provides the most convincing evidence for beta(3)-adrenoceptor labelling in cyto- or histochemistry studies.