Spanish Validation of the Technostress Creators Scale

A. Arenas*, Francisco José Sanclemente, V. Teran-Tinedo, D. Di Marco

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way organizations operate, forcing many of them to opt for remote-working as an alternative to the face-to-face mode. This global phenomenon has increased the importance of studying the psychosocial risks linked to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), such as technostress. This study aims to provide validity evidence for the Technostress Creators Scale in Spain and to test its measurement invariance in terms of gender. Method: We analyzed the psychometric properties of the scale, its factor solution, and gender invariance in a sample of 931 employees from Spain. Results: The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) showed that the Spanish version maintained the five factors from the original version: techno-overload, techno-invasion, techno-complexity, techno-insecurity, and techno-uncertainty. The instrument demonstrated adequate reliability. The results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) also replicated the five-factor structure of the English version. Additionally, measurement invariance tests indicated differences between genders. Conclusions: The resulting Spanish scale has 18 items, which is shorter than the original version. The implications and limitations of the Spanish version of the instrument are detailed in the discussion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-108
Number of pages11
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Technostress
  • Technostress creators
  • Management of ICTs
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Validation
  • WORK


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