Smoking-Specific Parenting and Smoking Onset in Adolescence: The Role of Genes from the Dopaminergic System (DRD2, DRD4, DAT1 Genotypes)

Marieke Hiemstra*, Rutger C. M. E. Engels, Edward D. Barker, Onno C. P. van Schayck, Roy Otten

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Although only few studies have shown direct links between dopaminergic system genes and smoking onset, this does not rule out the effect of a gene-environment interaction on smoking onset. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between smoking-specific parenting (i.e., frequency and quality of communication and house rules) and smoking onset while considering the potential moderating role of dopaminergic system genes (i.e., DRD2, DRD4, and DAT1 genotypes). Data from five annual waves of the 'Family and Health' project were used. At time 1, the sample comprised 365 non-smoking adolescents (200 younger adolescents, mean age = 13.31, SD = .48; 165 older adolescents, mean age = 15.19, SD = .57). Advanced longitudinal analyses were used (i.e., logistic regression analyses, (dual) latent growth curves, and cross-lagged path models). The results showed a direct effect of quality of communication on smoking onset. No direct effects were found for frequency of communication and house rules. Furthermore, no direct and moderating effects of the DRD2, DRD4, or DAT1 genotypes were found. In conclusion, the findings indicated that the effects of smoking-specific parenting on smoking are similar for adolescent carriers and non-carriers of the dopaminergic system genes.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere61673
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2013

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