Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Responses to Different Types of Short-Term Exercise Training and Detraining in Middle-Age Men

M.J. Callahan, E.B. Parr, T. Snijders, M.S. Conceicao, B.E. Radford, R.G. Timmins, B.L. Devlin, J.A. Hawley, D.M. Camera*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Introduction Whether short-term, single-mode exercise training can improve physical fitness before a period of reduced physical activity (e.g., postsurgery recovery) is not well characterized in clinical populations or middle-age adults. We investigated skeletal muscle adaptive responses after endurance exercise training (ENT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or resistance exercise training (RET), and a subsequent period of detraining, in sedentary, middle-age men. Methods Thirty-five sedentary men (39 +/- 3 yr) were randomized to parallel groups and undertook 6 wk of either ENT (n = 12), HIIT (n = 12), or RET (n = 11) followed by 2.5 wk of detraining. Skeletal muscle fiber characteristics, body composition, muscle thickness, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, resting energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis were assessed at baseline, and after exercise training and detraining. Results Lean mass increased after RET and HIIT (+3.2% +/- 1.6% and +1.6% +/- 2.1%, P < 0.05). Muscle strength (sum of leg press, leg extension, and bench press one-repetition maximums) increased after all training interventions (RET, +25% +/- 5%; HIIT, +10% +/- 5%; ENT, +7% +/- 7%; P < 0.05). Aerobic capacity increased only after HIIT and ENT (+14% +/- 7% and +11% +/- 11%, P < 0.05). Type I and II muscle fiber size increased for all groups after training (main effect of time, P < 0.05). After a period of detraining, the gains in lean mass and maximal muscle strength were maintained in the RET and HIIT groups, but maximal aerobic capacity declined below posttraining levels in HIIT and ENT (P < 0.05). Conclusions Six weeks of HIIT induced widespread adaptations before detraining in middle-age men. Exercise training-induced increases in aerobic capacity declined during 2.5 wk of detraining, but gains in lean mass and muscle strength were maintained.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2023-2036
Number of pages14
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume53
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021

Keywords

  • MUSCLE ADAPTATION
  • PROTEIN
  • SHORT-TERM TRAINING
  • SKELETAL MUSCLE GROWTH
  • CAPACITY
  • ENDURANCE
  • SPRINT INTERVAL
  • PERFORMANCE
  • ADAPTATIONS
  • STRENGTH
  • DISUSE
  • YOUNG
  • MASS
  • RESISTANCE

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