Sick leave in early axial spondyloarthritis: the role of clinical and socioeconomic factors. Five-year data from the DESIR cohort

Elena Nikiphorou*, Pedro D. Carvalho, Annelies Boonen, Bruno Fautrel, Pascal Richette, Pedro M. Machado, Desiree van der Heijde, Robert Landewe, Sofia Ramiro

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives To investigate the occurrence of sick leave (SL) and the impact of clinical and socioeconomic factors on SL in early axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of axSpA from the DEvenir des Spondyloarthrites Indifferenciees Recentes (DESIR) cohort with work-related data and up to 5-year follow-up were studied. Incidence, time to first SL and potential role of baseline and time-varying clinical and socioeconomic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, education, job type, marital and parental status) were analysed. Univariable analyses, followed by collinearity and interaction tests, guided subsequent multivariable time-varying Cox survival model building. Results In total, 704 axSpA patients were included (mean (SD) age 33.8 (8.6); 46% men). At baseline, 80% of patients were employed; of these, 5.7% reported being on SL. The incidence of SL among those at risk during the study period (n=620, 88%) was 0.05 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.06) per 1000 days of follow-up. Mean (SD) time to first SL was 806 (595) days (range: 175-2021 days). In multivariable models, male gender (HR 0.41 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.86)) and higher education (HR 0.48 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.95)) were associated with lower hazard of SL, while higher disease activity (HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.13)), older age, smoking and use of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors were associated with higher hazard of SL. Conclusions In this early axSpA cohort of young, working-age individuals, male gender and higher education were independently associated with a lower hazard of SL, whereas older age and higher disease activity were associated with higher hazard of SL. The findings suggest a role of socioeconomic factors in adverse work outcomes, alongside active disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number001685
Number of pages10
JournalRMD Open
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • epidemiology
  • inflammation
  • spondylitis
  • ankylosing

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