Shortened length of hospital stay with rivaroxaban in patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism in Japan: the J-EINSTEIN pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis program

Hiroshi Matsuo*, Martin Prins, Anthonie W. A. Lensing, Emi Watanabe Fujinuma, Yuki Miyamoto, Mariko Kajikawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: In Japan, the standard of care for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) consists of intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) followed by warfarin, which was recently compared with rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, in randomized trials. Aim: To examine the length of hospital stay in patients with PE and/or DVT receiving rivaroxaban compared to Japanese standard therapy in the Japanese (J)-EINSTEIN PE and DVT program. Methods: Open-label, randomized clinical trials that compared 3, 6, or 12 months of rivaroxaban with UFH and warfarin in patients with acute, confirmed symptomatic proximal PE and/or DVT. Decisions regarding hospital admission and/or discharge were left to the clinical judgment of attending physicians. Analyses were conducted in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Results: In the ITT population (N= 97), overall patient characteristics were similar in both treatment arms. The median length of stay in rivaroxaban patients was 10.0 days (interquartile range [IQR] 6.0 to 15.0 days) while it was 15.0 days (IQR 9.0 to 22.0) for patients on standard therapy (p = 0.016). All of the four DVT patients who were not hospitalized for the index event were in the rivaroxaban arm. Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment with rivaroxaban may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay in patients hospitalized for PE and/or DVT compared with the current standard of care in Japan, thereby reducing the burden on patients and the healthcare system. The limitations of our study include small sample size and the generalizability of the findings to the real-world setting. Further research is warranted to identify PE and/or DVT patients in Japanese clinical practice who may potentially be managed as outpatients.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1057-1061
JournalCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Japan
  • Length of stay
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Randomized trial
  • Rivaroxaban
  • Unfractionated heparin
  • Venous thromboembolism
  • Warfarin

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