While the schema mode construct is one of the main concepts of schema-focused therapy (sft) for personality disorders (young, 1990; young & klosko, 1994; young, klosko, & weishaar, 2003), the mode concept lacks clear theoretical and scientific embedding, and therapeutic guidelines about when to use modes in clinical practice are not always clear. Therefore, the current article aims at clarifying schema modes theoretically and by therapeutic vignettes. Modes are different aspects of the self that reflect the currently active cluster of cognitions, emotions and behaviour (young et al., 2003). The different schema modes are presented, as well as mode conceptualisations for several personality disorders. The distinction between healthy and pathological modes is outlined, as well as the link with dissociation and the concept of mode switching.