BACKGROUND: Differences in satiating capacity of liquid and solid meals are unclear. OBJECTIVE: Investigating appetite parameters, physiological measurements and within-subject relationships after consumption of a single macronutrient, subject-specific carbohydrate meal in liquefied versus solid form, controlled for energy density, weight and volume. DESIGN: In a cross-over design, ten male subjects (age = 21.1+/-3.9 y, BMI = 22.4+/-1.2 kg/m(2)) consumed a solid (CS, whole peaches +750 ml water) and liquefied carbohydrate (CL, peach blended in 500 ml water +250 ml water) lunch. Appetite profiles, insulin-, glucose- and ghrelin concentrations were measured over three hours. Post-prandial relationships between appetite and blood parameters were calculated using subject-specific regression analyses. RESULTS: Fullness ratings were higher in the CL (85+/-5 mm) compared to the CS condition (73+/-8 mm) at 20 min (p<0.03). Glucose concentrations peaked 20 to 30 min after the start of the lunch in the CL condition, and 30 to 40 min after start of the CS condition. Correspondingly, insulin concentrations were peaked at 20-30 min in the CL condition, and at 30-40 min in the CS condition. AUC or condition x time interactions were not different comparing the CL and the CS condition. Insulin was significantly higher in the CS compared to the CL condition 40 min after the start of the lunch (p<0.05). Fullness scores were significantly related to insulin concentrations but not to glucose concentrations; desire to eat scores were significantly associated with ghrelin concentrations in both, the CL and the CS condition. The relationship between fullness scores and glucose concentrations was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Liquefied and solid carbohydrate meals do not differ in satiating capacity, supported by appetite profile and relevant blood parameters. Postprandially, fullness and desire to eat were associated with respectively insulin and ghrelin concentrations.
Martens, M., Lemmens, S. G., Born, J. M., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2012). Satiating Capacity and Post-Prandial Relationships between Appetite Parameters and Gut-Peptide Concentrations with Solid and Liquefied Carbohydrate. PLOS ONE, 7(7), [e42110]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042110