Risk of Colon Cancer and Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drink Intake: Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Xuehong Zhang*, Demetrius Albanes, W. Lawrence Beeson, Piet A. van den Brandt, Julie E. Buring, Andrew Flood, Jo L. Freudenheim, Edward L. Giovannucci, R. Alexandra (Sandra) Goldbohm, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Eric J. Jacobs, Vittorio Krogh, Susanna C. Larsson, James R. Marshall, Marjorie L. McCullough, Anthony B. Miller, Kim Robien, Thomas E. Rohan, Arthur Schatzkin, Sabina SieriDonna Spiegelman, Jarmo Virtamo, Alicja Wolk, Walter C. Willett, Shumin M. Zhang, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. We investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of primary data from 13 cohort studies. Among 731 441 participants followed for up to 6-20 years, 5604 incident colon cancer case patients were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Compared with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariable relative risks were 1.07 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.30, P-trend = .68) for coffee consumption greater than 1400 g/d (about six 8-oz cups) and 1.28 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.61, P-trend = .01) for tea consumption greater than 900 g/d (about four 8-oz cups). For sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption, the pooled multivariable relative risk comparing consumption greater than 550 g/d (about 18 oz) to nonconsumers was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.66 to 1.32, P-trend = .91). No statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for the highest category of each beverage consumed (P > .20). The observed associations did not differ by sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, or tumor site (P > .05). Drinking coffee or sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks was not associated with colon cancer risk. However, a modest positive association with higher tea consumption is possible and requires further study.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)771-783
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume102
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2010

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