Review on the Regional Effects of Gastrointestinal Luminal Stimulation on Appetite and Energy Intake: (Pre)clinical Observations

J. Wilbrink, G. Masclee*, T. Klaassen, M. van Avesaat, D. Keszthelyi, A. Masclee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

4 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Macronutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen are able to activate "intestinal brakes", feedback mechanisms on proximal GI motility and secretion including appetite and energy intake. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the current evidence with respect to four questions: (1) are regional differences (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) present in the intestinal luminal nutrient modulation of appetite and energy intake? (2) is this "intestinal brake" effect macronutrient specific? (3) is this "intestinal brake" effect maintained during repetitive activation? (4) can the "intestinal brake" effect be activated via non-caloric tastants? Recent evidence indicates that: (1) regional differences exist in the intestinal modulation of appetite and energy intake with a proximal to distal gradient for inhibition of energy intake: ileum and jejunum > duodenum at low but not at high caloric infusion rates. (2) the "intestinal brake" effect on appetite and energy appears not to be macronutrient specific. At equi-caloric amounts, the inhibition on energy intake and appetite is in the same range for fat, protein and carbohydrate. (3) data on repetitive ileal brake activation are scarce because of the need for prolonged intestinal intubation. During repetitive activation of the ileal brake for up to 4 days, no adaptation was observed but overall the inhibitory effect on energy intake was small. (4) the concept of influencing energy intake by intra-intestinal delivery of non-caloric tastants is intriguing. Among tastants, the bitter compounds appear to be more effective in influencing energy intake. Energy intake decreases modestly after post-oral delivery of bitter tastants or a combination of tastants (bitter, sweet and umami). Intestinal brake activation provides an interesting concept for preventive and therapeutic approaches in weight management strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1601
Number of pages19
JournalNutrients
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021

Keywords

  • ANTROPYLORODUODENAL MOTILITY
  • DUODENAL GLUCOSE
  • FOOD-INTAKE
  • GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1
  • GUT MOTILITY
  • HORMONE-RELEASE
  • ILEAL FAT PERFUSION
  • INTESTINAL NUTRIENT INFUSION
  • INTRADUODENAL INFUSION
  • PLASMA CCK
  • appetite
  • carbohydrate
  • duodenal jejunal and ileal brake
  • energy intake
  • fat
  • intestinal brake
  • protein
  • satiation
  • satiety
  • tastants
  • INTRADUODENAL PROTEIN

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