Review article: The diagnosis and management of gastroparesis

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by a delay in gastric emptying of a meal in the absence of a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. AIM: To provide an evidence based overview on diagnosis and management of gastroparesis. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using search terms including gastroparesis, gastric retention, gastric emptying, accommodation, manometry, prokinetics, antiemetics, metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin, botulinum toxin, gastric pacing. Relevant studies were identified and original articles and reviews were collected. References in these articles were examined for relevance and included where appropriate. RESULTS: Diagnosis of gastroparesis is based on the presence of symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and postprandial abdominal fullness and on an objectively determined delay in gastric emptying. The true prevalence of gastroparesis is unknown. Gastric emptying can be assessed by scintigraphy and stable isotope breath tests. Management of gastroparesis consists of dietary and lifestyle measures and/or pharmacological interventions (prokinetics, antiemetics, intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection) or other interventions that focus on adequate nutrient intake either through a nasoduodenal tube, percutaneous gastrostomy or jejunostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate diagnosis of gastroparesis requires an adequate protocol to measure gastric emptying. Treatment options in gastroparesis remain limited despite the disabling nature of the disorder.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-46
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Volume26
Issue numberSuppl. 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2007

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