Review article: the clinical relevance of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

B.F. Kessing, J.M. Conchillo, A.J. Bredenoord, A.J. Smout, A.A.M. Masclee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSR) are considered the physiological mechanism that enables venting of gas from the stomach and appear as sphincter relaxations that are not induced by swallowing. It has become increasingly clear that most reflux episodes occur during TLOSRs and therefore play a key role in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Aim To describe the current knowledge about TLOSRs and its clinical implications. Methods Search of the literature published in English using the PubMed database and relevant abstracts presented at international conventions. Results Several factors influence the rate of TLOSRs including anti-reflux surgery, meal, body position, nutrition, lifestyle and a wide array of neurotransmitters. Ongoing insights in the neurotransmitters responsible for the modulation of TLOSRs, as well as the neural pathways involved in TLOSR induction, have lead to novel therapeutic targets. These therapeutic targets can serve as an add-on therapy in patients with an unsatisfactory response to proton pump inhibitor by inhibiting TLOSRs and its associated reflux events. However, the TLOSR-inhibiting drugs that are currently available still have significant side effects. Conclusion It is likely that in the future, selected GERD patients may benefit from transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation inhibition when compounds are found without significant side effects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)650-661
Number of pages12
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Volume33
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2011

Keywords

  • HIGH-RESOLUTION MANOMETRY
  • DORSAL MOTOR NUCLEUS
  • LAPAROSCOPIC PARTIAL FUNDOPLICATION
  • METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS
  • NEGATIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR
  • CRURAL DIAPHRAGM INHIBITION
  • GABA(B) AGONIST BACLOFEN
  • GASTRIC DISTENSION
  • ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION
  • PROXIMAL STOMACH

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