Background In addition to the circulating (endocrine) renin-angiotensin system (RAS), local renin-angiotensin systems are now known to exist in diverse cells and tissues. Amongst these, pancreatic renin-angiotensin systems have recently been identified and may play roles in the physiological regulation of pancreatic function, as well as being implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic diseases including diabetes, pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Aim To review and summarise current knowledge of pancreatic renin-angiotensin systems. Methods We performed an extensive PubMed, Medline and online review of all relevant literature. Results Pancreatic RAS appear to play various roles in the regulation of pancreatic physiology and pathophysiology. Ang II may play a role in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, via stimulation of angiogenesis and prevention of chemotherapy toxicity, as well as in the initiation and propagation of acute pancreatitis (AP); whereas, RAS antagonism is capable of preventing new-onset diabetes and improving glycaemic control in diabetic patients. Current evidence for the roles of pancreatic RAS is largely based upon cell and animal models, whilst definitive evidence from human studies remains lacking. Conclusions The therapeutic potential for RAS antagonism, using cheap and widely available agents, and may be untapped and such roles are worthy of active investigation in diverse pancreatic disease states.
- II TYPE-1 RECEPTOR
- ISLET BLOOD-FLOW
- EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX PRODUCTION
- RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIALS
- BETA-CELL FUNCTION