Results of a Multicentric In Silico Clinical Trial (ROCOCO) Comparing Radiotherapy with Photons and Protons for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

Erik Roelofs*, Martijn Engelsman, Coen Rasch, Lucas Persoon, Sima Qamhiyeh, Dirk de Ruysscher, Frank Verhaegen, Madelon Pijls-Johannesma, Philippe Lambin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Introduction: This multicentric in silico trial compares photon and proton radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer patients. The hypothesis is that proton radiotherapy decreases the dose and the volume of irradiated normal tissues even when escalating to the maximum tolerable dose of one or more of the organs at risk (OAR). Methods: Twenty-five patients, stage IA-IIIB, were prospectively included. On 4D F-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans, the gross tumor, clinical and planning target volumes, and OAR were delineated. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) photon and passive scattered conformal proton therapy (PSPT) plans were created to give 70 Gy to the tumor in 35 fractions. Dose (de-)escalation was performed by rescaling to the maximum tolerable dose. Results: Protons resulted in the lowest dose to the OAR, while keeping the dose to the target at 70 Gy. The integral dose (ID) was higher for 3DCRT (59%) and IMRT (43%) than for PSPT. The mean lung dose reduced from 18.9 Gy for 3DCRT and 16.4 Gy for IMRT to 13.5 Gy for PSPT. For 10 patients, escalation to 87 Gy was possible for all 3 modalities. The mean lung dose and ID were 40 and 65% higher for photons than for protons, respectively. Conclusions: The treatment planning results of the Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison trial show a reduction of ID and the dose to the OAR when treating with protons instead of photons, even with dose escalation. This shows that PSPT is able to give a high tumor dose, while keeping the OAR dose lower than with the photon modalities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-176
JournalJournal of Thoracic Oncology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012


  • In silico planning study
  • Multicentric trial
  • Lung cancer
  • Radiotherapy
  • Particle therapy
  • Dose escalation


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