Respiratory Mechanics and Outcomes in Immunocompromised Patients With ARDS A Secondary Analysis of the EFRAIM Study

Alexandre Demoule*, Massimo Antonelli, Peter Schellongowski, Peter Pickkers, Marcio Soares, Tine Meyhoff, Jordi Rello, Philippe R. Bauer, Andry van de Louw, Virgine Lemiale, David Grimaldi, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Martin Balik, Sangeeta Mehta, Achille Kouatchet, Andreas Barratt-Due, Miia Valkonen, Jean Reignier, Victoria Metaxa, Anne-Sophie MoreauGaston Burghi, Djamel Mokart, Julien Mayaux, Michael Darmon, Elie Azoulay, EFRAIM Investigators, Dennis Bergmans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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BACKGROUND: In view of the high mortality rate of immunocompromised patients with ARDS, it is important to identify targets for improvement.

RESEARCH QUESTION: This study investigated factors associated with mortality in this specific ARDS population, including factors related to respiratory mechanics (plateau pressure [Pplat,rs], compliance [Crs], and driving pressure [Delta Prs]).

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study consisted of a predefined secondary analysis of the EFRAIM data. Overall, 789 of 1,611 patients met the Berlin criteria for ARDS, and Pplat,rs, Delta Prs, and Crs were available for 494 patients. A hierarchical model was used to assess factors at ARDS onset independently associated with hospital mortality.

RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 56.3%. After adjustment, variables independently associated with hospital mortality included ARDS of undetermined etiology (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.012.72), need for vasopressors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.88), and need for renal replacement therapy (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.37-2.97). ARDS severity according to the Berlin definition, neutropenia on admission, and the type of underlying disease were not significantly associated with mortality. Before adjustment, higher Pplat,rs, higher Delta Prs, and lower Crs were associated with higher mortality. Addition of each of these individual variables to the final hierarchical model revealed a significant association with mortality: Delta Prs (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12), Pplat,rs (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11), and Crs (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98). Tidal volume was not associated with mortality.

INTERPRETATION: In immunocompromised patients with ARDS, respiratory mechanics provide additional prognostic information to predictors of hospital mortality. Studies designed to define lung-protective ventilation guided by these physiological variables may be warranted in this specific population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1947-1957
Number of pages11
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • acute respiratory failure
  • ARDS
  • diagnosis
  • driving pressure
  • immunocompromised
  • outcome
  • plateau pressure

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