Report of the first international consensus on standardized nomenclature of antinuclear antibody HEp-2 cell patterns 2014-2015

Edward K. L. Chan, Jan Damoiseaux, Orlando Gabriel Carballo, Karsten Conrad, Wilson de Melo Cruvinel, Paulo Luiz Carvalho Francescantonio, Marvin J. Fritzler, Ignacio Garcia-De La Torre, Manfred Herold, Tsuneyo Mimori, Minoru Satoh, Carlos A. von Muehlen, Luis E. C. Andrade*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


During the 12th International Workshop on Autoantibodies and Autoimmunity held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on August 28, 2014, a full day session was devoted to establishing a consensus on the nomenclature of staining patterns observed in the antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect immunofluorescence test on HEp-2 cells. The current report summarizes the collective agreements with input from the host Brazilian and international communities that represented research, clinical, and diagnostic service laboratories. Patterns are categorized in three major groups (nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitotic patterns) and each pattern has been defined and described in detail. The consensus nomenclature and representative patterns are made available online at the international consensus on antinuclear antibody pattern (ICAP) website ( To facilitate continuous improvement and input, specific comments on ICAP are encouraged and these will be discussed in subsequent ICAP meetings. The ultimate goal with the establishment of the ICAP is to promote harmonization and understanding of autoantibody test nomenclature, as well as interpretation guidelines for ANA testing, thereby optimizing usage in patient care.
Original languageEnglish
Article number412
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 20 Aug 2015


  • antinuclear antibodies
  • autoantibody
  • autoimmunity
  • consensus
  • standardization

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