Purpose: To assess, using cone-beam computed tomography and histologic examination, whether the fixation of a condyle-ascending ramus mandibular modular endoprosthesis results in a physiologic condylar replacement in Macaca fascicularis. Materials and Methods: The right condyle and ascending ramus were resected in 8 adult monkeys and replaced with a modular endoprosthesis, fixed with polymethyl methacrylate bone cement (Palacos). Four monkeys were sacrificed at 3 months and another 4 at 6 months postoperatively. The reconstructed and contralateral temporomandibular joints were harvested en bloc and studied using cone-beam computed tomography and descriptive histologic examination. Heterotopic bone formation was quantified using a modified grading scale. The condyle cartilage thickness in the contralateral temporomandibular joint was measured using histomorphometric methods. The results were compared with those of the unoperated control monkeys. Results: Bone resorption in the glenoid fossa and pathologic changes in the articular disc were noted on the reconstructed side in most specimens. Nevertheless, cone-beam computed tomography findings, histologic findings, and condyle cartilage thickness measurements of the contralateral temporomandibular joint were not significantly different from those of the control specimens. Conclusion: Replacement of the condyle and ascending ramus using a modular endoprosthesis in Macaca fascicularis resulted in adaptive remodeling of the glenoid fossa at up to 6 months postoperatively. Long-term studies are required to further assess the potential of this mode of reconstruction.