Replacement of Nitrite in Meat Products by Natural Bioactive Compounds Results in Reduced Exposure to N-Nitroso Compounds: The PHYTOME Project

S.G. van Breda*, K. Mathijs, H.J. Pieters, V. Sagi-Kiss, G.G. Kuhnle, P. Georgiadis, G. Saccani, G. Parolari, R. Virgili, R. Sinha, G. Hemke, Y. Hung, W. Verbeke, A.A. Masclee, C.B. Vleugels-Simon, A.A. van Bodegraven, T.M. de Kok, PHYTOME consortium

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Scope It has been proposed that endogenously form N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are partly responsible for the link between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. As nitrite has been indicated as critical factor in the formation of NOCs, the impact of replacing the additive sodium nitrite (E250) by botanical extracts in the PHYTOME project is evaluated. Method and Results A human dietary intervention study is conducted in which healthy subjects consume 300 g of meat for 2 weeks, in subsequent order: conventional processed red meat, white meat, and processed red meat with standard or reduced levels of nitrite and added phytochemicals. Consumption of red meat products enriched with phytochemicals leads to a significant reduction in the faecal excretion of NOCs, as compared to traditionally processed red meat products. Gene expression changes identify cell proliferation as main affects molecular mechanism. High nitrate levels in drinking water in combination with processed red meat intake further stimulates NOC formation, an effect that could be mitigated by replacement of E250 by natural plant extracts. Conclusion These findings suggest that addition of natural extracts to conventionally processed red meat products may help to reduce CRC risk, which is mechanistically support by gene expression analyses.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2001214
Number of pages17
JournalMolecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume65
Issue number20
Early online date27 Aug 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • colorectal cancer risk
  • gene expression
  • genotoxicity
  • human dietary intervention study
  • N-nitroso compounds
  • REPLICATION PROTEIN-A
  • GENE-EXPRESSION
  • COLORECTAL-CANCER
  • RED MEAT
  • ENDOGENOUS FORMATION
  • PROCESSED MEAT
  • DIETARY MEAT
  • DNA-DAMAGE
  • COLON
  • NITROSAMINES

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