Relaxometric studies of gadolinium-functionalized perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for MR imaging

Anke de Vries, Rik Moonen, Muhammed Yildirim, Sander Langereis, Rolf Lamerichs, Jeroen A. Pikkemaat, Simona Baroni, Enzo Terreno, Klaas Nicolay, Gustav J. Strijkers, Holger Grull*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Fluorine MRI ((19) F MRI) is receiving an increasing attention as a viable alternative to proton-based MRI ((1) H MRI) for dedicated application in molecular imaging. The (19) F nucleus has a high gyromagnetic ratio, a 100% natural abundance and is furthermore hardly present in human tissues allowing for hot spot MR imaging. The applicability of (19) F MRI as a molecular and cellular imaging technique has been exploited, ranging from cell tracking to detection and imaging of tumors in preclinical studies. In addition to applications, developing new contrast materials with improved relaxation properties has also been a core research topic in the field, since the inherently low longitudinal relaxation rates of perfluorocarbon compounds result in relatively low imaging efficiency. Borrowed from (1) H MRI, the incorporation of lanthanides, specifically Gd(III) complexes, as signal modulating ingredients in the nanoparticle formulation has emerged as a promising approach to improvement of the fluorine signal. Three different perfluorocarbon emulsions were investigated at five different magnetic field strengths. Perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether was used as the core material and Gd(III)DOTA-DSPE, Gd(III)DOTA-C6-DSPE and Gd(III)DTPA-BSA as the relaxation altering components. While Gd(III)DOTA-DSPE and Gd(III)DOTA-C6-DSPE were favorable constructs for (1) H NMR, Gd(III)DTPA-BSA showed the strongest increase in (19F) R(1). These results show the potential of the use of paramagnetic lipids to increase (19F) R(1) at clinical field strengths (1.5-3?T). At higher field strengths (6.3-14?T), gadolinium does not lead to an increase in (19F) R(1) compared with emulsions without gadolinium, but leads to an significant increase in (19F) R(2). Our data therefore suggest that the most favorable situation for fluorine measurements is at high magnetic fields without the inclusion of gadolinium constructs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-91
JournalContrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014


Dive into the research topics of 'Relaxometric studies of gadolinium-functionalized perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for MR imaging'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this