Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

S. Soenen, A.G. Bonomi, S.G. Lemmens, J. Scholte, M.A. Thijssen, F. van Berkum, M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: 'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. OBJECTIVE: To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. DESIGN: Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50+/-12yr; BW=107+/-20kg; BMI=37+/-6kg/m(2); FM=47.5+/-11.9kg) were compared after 3 and 12months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3months, and 67% for the last 9months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7+/-0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1+/-0.2g/kg BW (p<0.01). RESULTS: BW and FM decreased over 3months (p<0.001): HP (-14.1+/-4kg; -11.9+/-1.7kg) vs. NP (-11.5+/-4kg; -9.3+/-0.7kg) (p<0.001); LC (-13.5+/-4kg; -11.0+/-1.2kg) vs. NC (-12.3+/-3kg; -10.3+/-1.1kg) (ns). Dietxtime interaction showed HPLC (-14.7+/-5kg; -11.9+/-1.6kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8+/-3kg; -11.9+/-1.8kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2+/-4kg; -10.0+/-0.8kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7+/-4kg; -8.6+/-0.7kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.001); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.001). Decreases over 12months (p<0.001) showed HP (-12.8+/-4kg; -9.1+/-0.8kg) vs. NP (-8.9+/-3kg; -7.7+/-0.6kg) (p<0.001); LC (-10.6+/-4kg; -8.3+/-0.7kg) vs. NC (11.1+/-3kg; 9.3+/-0.7kg) (ns). Dietxtime interaction showed HPLC (-11.6+/-5kg ; -8.2+/-0.7kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1+/-4kg; -10.0+/-0.9kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2+/-3kg; -6.7+/-0.6kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7+/-3kg; -8.5+/-0.7kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.01); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.01). HPNC vs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. CONCLUSION: Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-380
Number of pages7
JournalPhysiology & Behavior
Volume107
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2012

Keywords

  • High-protein
  • Low-carb
  • Weight loss
  • Body composition
  • LOW-FAT DIET
  • LOW-CARBOHYDRATE-DIET
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
  • KETOGENIC DIET
  • LABELED WATER
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • OBESE WOMEN
  • FOOD-INTAKE
  • AD-LIBITUM
  • OVERWEIGHT

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