Data from the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were used to investigate the association between anthropometry, energy intake, and physical activity and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years who completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline (1986). A case-cohort approach was used. After 9.3 years of follow-up, 275 microscopically confirmed incident cases were available for analysis. Incidence rate ratios for RCC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Height was associated with RCC risk only in women (per 5-cm increment, rate ratio (RR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.46). Body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) was associated with increased risk of RCC (per 1-kg/m(2 )increment, RR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12) for men and women, as was gain in body mass index from age 20 years to baseline (per 1-kg/m(2 )increment, RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10). Energy intake was not related to RCC risk, while a possible protective effect was observed for physical activity in men. These results suggest that body mass index and gain in body mass index since age 20 are associated with increased risk of RCC.