Refining success of cardiac resynchronization therapy using a simple score predicting the amount of reverse ventricular remodelling: results from the Markers and Response to CRT (MARC) study

Alexander H. Maass*, Kevin Vernooy, Sofieke C. Wijers, Jetske van 't Sant, Maarten J. Cramer, Mathias Meine, Cornelis P. Allaart, Frederik J. De Lange, Frits W. Prinzen, Bart Gerritse, Erna Erdtsieck, Coert O. S. Scheerder, Michael R. S. Hill, Marcoen Scholten, Marielle Kloosterman, Iris A. H. ter Horst, Adriaan A. Voors, Marc A. Vos, Michiel Rienstra, Isabelle C. Van Gelder

*Corresponding author for this work

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Aims Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in systolic heart failure patients with ventricular conduction delay. Variability of individual response to CRT warrants improved patient selection. The Markers and Response to CRT (MARC) study was designed to investigate markers related to response to CRT. Methods and results We prospectively studied the ability of 11 clinical, 11 electrocardiographic, 4 echocardiographic, and 16 blood biomarkers to predict CRT response in 240 patients. Response was measured by the reduction of indexed left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESVi) at 6 months follow-up. Biomarkers were related to LVESVi change using loglinear regression on continuous scale. Covariates that were significant univariately were included in a multivariable model. The final model was utilized to compose a response score. Age was 67 +/- 10 years, 63% were male, 46% had ischaemic aetiology, LV ejection fraction was 26 +/- 8%, LVESVi was 75 +/- 31 mL/m(2), and QRS was 178 +/- 23 ms. At 6 months LVESVi was reduced to 58 +/- 31 mL/m2 (relative reduction of 22 +/- 24%), 130 patients (61%) showed >_ 15% LVESVi reduction. In univariate analysis 17 parameters were significantly associated with LVESVi change. In the final model age, QRSAREA (using vectorcardiography) and two echocardiographic markers (interventricular mechanical delay and apical rocking) remained significantly associated with the amount of reverse ventricular remodelling. This CAVIAR (CRT-Age-Vectorcardiographic QRSAREA-Interventricular Mechanical delay-Apical Rocking) response score also predicted clinical outcome assessed by heart failure hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. Conclusions The CAVIAR response score predicts the amount of reverse remodelling after CRT and may be used to improve patient selection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E1-E10
Number of pages10
JournalEP Europace
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • Heart failure
  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Vectorcardiography
  • Electrocardiography
  • Echocardiography

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