Reference Values for Respiratory Muscle Strength in Children and Adolescents

Erik Hulzebos*, Tim Takken, Elja A. Reijneveld, Mark M. G. Mulder, Bart C. Bongers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Background: Measurement of respiratory muscle function is important in the diagnosis of respiratory muscle disease, respiratory failure, to assess the impact of chronic diseases, and/or to evaluate respiratory muscle function after treatment. Objectives: To establish reference values for maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure, and the tension-time index at rest in healthy children and adolescents aged 8-19 years, as well as to present sex-and age-related reference centiles normalized for demographic and anthropometric determinants. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, demographic, anthropometric, and spirometric data were assessed, as well as data on respiratory muscle strength (P-Imax and P-Emax) and work of breathing at rest (T-T0.1), in a total of 251 children (117 boys and 134 girls; mean age 13.4 +/- 2.9 years). Reference values are presented as reference centiles developed by use of the lambda, mu, sigma method. Results: Boys had significantly higher PImax and PEmax values. Next to sex and age, fat-free mass appeared to be an important predictor of respiratory muscle strength. Reference centiles demonstrated a slight, almost linear increase in PImax with age in boys, and a less steep increase with age in girls. TT0.1 values did not differ between boys and girls and decreased linearly with age. Conclusion: This study provides reference values for respiratory muscle strength and work of breathing at rest. In addition to sex and age, fat-free mass was found to be an important predictor of respiratory muscle strength in boys and girls. (C) 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-243
Number of pages9
JournalRespiration
Volume95
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018

Keywords

  • Respiratory muscle strength
  • Tension time index
  • Children
  • Adolescents
  • Reference values
  • TENSION-TIME INDEX
  • HEALTHY-CHILDREN
  • CYSTIC-FIBROSIS
  • NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS
  • EXPIRATORY PRESSURES
  • EXERCISE
  • DISEASE
  • ADULTS

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