Recent studies suggest that substituting sitting with light physical activity has beneficial metabolic effects, but it is unclear if this is associated with parallel changes in endothelial function. Data from three randomized cross-over studies were analyzed, in which 61 subjects (with normal weight, overweight and type 2 diabetes) followed different activity regimens (Sit, SitLess and/or Exercise) of four days each. Subjects were instructed to sit 14 h/day ('Sit'), to substitute 1h/day of sitting with moderate-to-vigorous cycling ('Exercise') or to substitute 5-6 h/day sitting with light-intensity walking and standing ('SitLess'). Physical activity was assessed 24 h/day by accelerometry (ActivPAL) and diet was standardized. Fasted circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, lipids and insulin sensitivity were assessed the morning after each activity regimen. The endothelial dysfunction score (ED-score) was computed by averaging the Z-scores of the circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. Compared to Sit, Exercise resulted in lower ED-score, sICAM1 and sE-selectin (p <0.05), while no significant changes were observed after SitLess. The ED-score, sVCAMl and sE-selectin were lower after Exercise compared to SitLess (p <0.05). In contrast, compared to Sit, insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-IR) and plasma lipids (HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and Apo B)did not change significantly after Exercise but were improved after SitLess (p <0.05). In conclusion, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity had a differential effect on risk markers of cardiometabolic health and suggest the need of both performing structured exercise as well as reducing sitting time on a daily basis.
- SEDENTARY TIME
- INSULIN SENSITIVITY