Recurrence risk is associated with preoperatively advanced prolapse stage: Is there a difference between women with stage 2 and those with stage 3 or 4 cystocele?

Tineke F. M. Vergeldt*, Kim J. B. Notten, Kirsten B. Kluivers, Mirjam Weemhoff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) recurrence after surgery is a major problem. POP that is more advanced preoperatively is associated with a higher risk of recurrence postoperatively. We hypothesized that women with a stage 2 cystocele differ from those with a stage 3 or 4 cystocele. The aim of this study was to compare the baseline characteristics of women with mild and those with more advanced cystocele.

Patients had participated in one of two multicenter prospective cohort studies on women undergoing conventional anterior colporrhaphy without previous POP surgery. This was a secondary analysis of these data. Women with a preoperative cystocele stage 2 were compared with women with a stage 3 or 4 cystocele. Logistic regression models were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Two hundred and sixty-nine women were assessed, of whom 132 (49.1%) had an advanced cystocele. Only older age was significantly associated with advanced cystocele preoperatively, with an OR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.04-1.10). There were no significant differences between women with advanced or stage 2 cystocele in body mass index, vaginal deliveries, assisted delivery, positive family history of POP, concurrent rectocele, concurrent uterine of vaginal vault prolapse, major levator ani muscle defects, or levator hiatal area.

Women with advanced cystocele were significantly older than women with stage 2 cystocele. This raises the question whether it would be favorable to perform POP surgery in an earlier stage, i.e., at a younger age, in order to prevent POP recurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)983-987
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Urogynecology Journal
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017


  • Advanced stage
  • Age
  • Pelvic organ prolapse
  • Recurrence

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